According to a description on Amazon, the elder Netanyahu's book argued the Inquisition "gave birth to an anti-Semitism based on race that would have terrible consequences for centuries to come."
Netanyahu inscribed the front page of the copy he gave to the pope, "To his Holiness Pope Franciscus, a great shepherd of our common heritage."
Pope Francis and Netanyahu met privately for about 25 minutes, the AP reported.
A press release from the Vatican Information Service said the pair discussed "the reinstatement of negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians." Pope Francis gave Netanyahu a bronze plaque showing St. Paul.