The justices on Monday let stand a lower court ruling that refused to dismiss the charges. A trial in the case is tentatively scheduled for the fall.
The Democratic lawmaker was charged with fraud and bribery in 2015 for allegedly taking official action on behalf of a friend who had given him gifts and campaign donations. He has pleaded not guilty.
Menendez has argued that his meetings with various government officials fell under a constitutional clause that protects the actions of sitting lawmakers.
A federal appeals court said that issue should be argued in front of a jury.
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