The crater has a 100-foot diameter, according to NASA, and the surrounding area is colored blue because the blast blew away the planet's signature red dust. Debris from the impact extended more than 9 miles from the crater.
While Mars is routinely hit by objects from outer space, "few of the scars are as dramatic in appearance as this one," the agency said.
The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter last November. The full-size photo is below.
Correction: This post has been updated to correct the description of the asteroid, which was not called "large" by NASA.