You might have understated the degree to which these programs are designed to keep you from thinking about anything other than academic life. While my PhD is in political science, I imagine most social sciences are similar -- simply suggesting in my courses that we think about the public policy implications of our political theory or political behavior studies brought scorn. I think the move to ever more complex statistical methods also contributes to putting up a wall between general audiences and academia.
Furthermore, any career counseling was a joke if you wanted to look outside of academia. You also can't understate the importance to your professors and advisors for you to stay in academia because it is a way of "spreading their seed" and demonstrating their influence. This has even been the case with a friend of mine who left their program with a PhD and wound up working as a staff director for a congressional committee for 15 years. You would think this would bring pride to a political science professor -- but instead it almost brought shame -- that one of their bright students left to actually do something concrete with their knowledge!
For me, I got lucky. I took a policy job at a non-profit in DC so I could work on my dissertation closer to the halls of Congress. This has turned into a comfortable job straddling the lines between academia and policy activism. But, I feel like I succeeded in spite of my graduate program.